Here are some of the topics that we covered during the 1st quarter for English Language and Reading.
Nouns name people, places, and things. There are different categories of nouns
- Common nouns are the general names of people, places, and things. These types of nouns are usually not capitalized (unless they begin a sentence or are part of a title).
- Proper nouns are the names of a specific person, place, or thing. The basic capitalization rule of proper nouns is that the first letters are capitalized.
Remember that proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, things, or ideas.
Capitalization: Types of Proper Nouns
Below are the types of Proper Nouns that need to be capitalized.
- Names of People : Maria Santos, Aisaac Klarence
- Geographical Locations: Malaysia, Philippines, Davao
- Months, Days of the Week, Holidays: Monday, January, Christmas (Note: We do not capitalize the names of seasons: summer, winter, fall, etc.)
- Astronomical Names: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn (Note: sun and moon are generally not capitalized in sentences unless they are a part of a list of other astronomical names)
- Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, Books: The Manila Bulletin, The Jungle Book
- Organizations, Companies: Microsoft, Facebook
- Buildings, Monuments, Place Names: Luneta Park, Quezon City Circle
- People’s Titles: President Duterte, King Phillip II, (note: when titles are part of the name they are capitalized; but, when titles are discussed generally, we do not capitalize them. Example: The president of Philippines will be in Washington D.C. next week to visit with President Obama).
- Historical Periods & Events: World War I, the Renaissance, D-Day
- Languages, Nationalities: French, English, German, American
- Brand Names: Nike, Coca-Cola, Levi’s
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
Note : Abstract nouns use the singular verb form
A collective noun is a name used for a number of people, animals or things that we group together and speak of as a whole. For example, we say a bunch of bananas, a litter of puppies, a flock of sheep, etc. Viewed as a single unit, a group uses a singular verb; regarded as separate members making up the group, it takes a plural verb.
- The family is planning an overseas trip. (The family is viewed as a single unit planning and going overseas together, so it takes a singular verb.)
- The family are discussing about the plan. (The family members are taking part in the discussion and are no longer considered a single unit, so it uses a plural verb.)
A collective noun can take a singular or a plural verb.
colony of ants bouquet of flowers
armada of ships school of fish
band of gorillas kennel of dogs
pack of wolves pride of lions
hive of bees flock of sheep
Read the sentences. Choose the correct verb that should follow the abstract or collective nouns. Circle your answer. ( Subject – Verb Agreement with Abstract and Collective Nouns)
- Peace (starts , starts) with justice and equality.
- Persistence (conquer, conquers) all things.
- Determination and purpose (move, moves) the spirit.
- Happiness ( reside, resides) not in material possessions but in one’s soul.
- The organization ( puts, put ) on a barbecue every summer.
- The pack of dogs ( was , were ) running off in different directions.
- A huge swarm of locusts ( has, have ) destroyed the crops.
- Statistics ( require, requires ) complicated methods.
- The choral group’s collection of trophies ( is, are) displayed at the principal’s office.
- Several herds of cattle (is led , are led) towards the mountains.
Possessive Form of Nouns
Nouns have a possessive form. We use it to show ownership.
To show the possessive form, put an apostrophe (‘) and an s – ‘s – after a singular noun
- This is my dog and that is Tom’s cat.
- The child is pulling the cow’s tail.
- Everybody’s shoes must be left outside the door.
- We all like the church’s teaching on forgiveness.
Use an apostrophe and an s (‘s) after plural nouns that do not end in s to make the possessive form
- The plane’s tail section had broken off.
- This is the second attempt on the president’s life.
- Some people’s houses in the neighbourhood are bigger than ours.
- He cut off the mice’s tails.
When making plural possessive nouns which end with an s, add only an apostrophe
- The girls’ mother is taller than the boys’ mother.
- Their wives’ parents were present in the Christmas celebrations.
- The strong winds destroyed all the villagers’ houses.
- He had three days’ moustache growth drooping over his mouth.
Two possessive forms (‘s)may appear one after the other
- She is Jim’s brother’s girlfriend.
- This is Tom’s car and that is Tom’s father’s car.
- Jane’s dog’s bushy tail wags furiously when she arrives home.
When two nouns/names that are joined together are joint owners, the possessive form should take an ‘s after the second name only
- On that hill is Jack and Jill’s house. (The house belongs to both Jack and Jill)
- Paul and Paula’s mother is a doctor.
When two nouns (names) that are joined together have different ownership, each will need an apostrophe s (‘s) added
- Adam’s and Eve’s cars are parked one behind the other.
- The police are keeping watch on the suspect’s and his accomplice’s houses.
When a name ends in s, the possessive form can take either an apostrophe and an s (‘s) or only an apostrophe
- This is a portrait of King Charles’s
- This is a portrait of King Charles’
- My uncle James’s factory was burnt down last night.
- My uncle James’factory was burnt down last night.
Only an apostrophe and an s (‘s) is used when the place of business is understood and thus not stated
- He went to the barber’s to have his hair cut.
- She was at the butcher’s when I called her.
When an apostrophe is not used
When the word its is used, it indicates possession. Inserting an apostrophe so that it becomes it’s gives it a different meaning; it’s is a contraction of it is.
It’s your turn to make the dinner. = It is your turn to make the dinner.
To show possession, do not use an apostrophe
- The dog is licking its (The paw belongs to the dog as indicated by the possessive its.)
- It flapped itswings and flew off.
- Their house has its own swimming pool.
A pronoun is a word that takes a place of a noun
Ex: he, she it, they , someone, who
Pronouns can do all of the things that nouns can do. They can be subjects, indirect objects, object of the prepositions and more.
Types of Pronouns :
Personal = I, me , we , us you, she , her, him , it , they, them
Demonstrative – this, that , these, those
Indefinite – anyone, something, all , most , some
Interrogative- (found in questions) – what, whom, whose, which
Possessive – his, hers, your, theirs
All parts of a sentence should agree. Generally, if the subject is singular, the verb should be singular, and if a pronoun refers back to that singular subject, it should be singular in form, too
Synonyms and Antonyms
Synonyms – words that have the same or similar meaning
Antonyms – words that have opposite meaning
Prefix and Suffix