Lesson 1 – Changes in the Life of Filipinos
The colonial government imposed economic policies intended to generate income and mobilze human resources. While it was beneficial to the Spaniards, it was detrimental to the Filipinos. It brought tremendous hardships.even death to the Filipinos.
Encomedia System-Right granted to Spanish conquistadores to collect tribute in an allotted territory.
Tributes and Other Taxes-Tribute payment started in 1571 and lasted until 1884. when it was replaced by another form of tax which is cedula personal.
Polo y Servicio-Forced Labor
Bandala-Compulsory sale of products to the government
Galleon Trade-The only trading activity allowed from 1565 to 1815
Hacienda System-A hacienda is a large track of land given to the friars for spreading Christianity
Lesson 2-Cultural Changes
The Spaniards believed that the Filipinos were uncivilized before they came. Hence, made it a duty to introduce their civilization to the Phillipines by the process of acculturation or imposing their own culture on the Filipinos. By doing so, they believed that they had changed Filipino way of life from barbaric to civilized one.
Filipino believes that spirits travels through the rivers first after colonization.Spaniards said that destination are to hell or heaven.
Different styles of architecture, such as the Gothic,Corinthian, and Baroque styles were also used in chruches and buildings.
Arts and Literature
Plays such as moro-moro or comedia,zarzuela,pasyon and cenaculo were introduced.
Spanish dishes such as menudo,afritada,paella,pochero,caldereta,callos, and other viands also became part of our daily diet. Spaniards also introduced spoon and fork for eating.
Some Spanish words that we are using these days such as mesa (table) silya from silla (chair), and sibuyas from cebolla (onion).
When the Spaniards learned that some ethnic groups in the Philippines had men wearing bahag (g strings), and kanggan (short sleeves, collarless jacket), they concluded that the Filipinos were still savages and did not know how to dress properly
Spaniards born in spain and the Spaniards born in the Philippines take the highest political position and economic opportunities. Next to the Spaniards is they mestizos foreign father and a Filipino mother. The lowest class in the society is the derogatory (Filipinos)
Prominent Filipinos in Music,Arts and Literature
In painting Juan Luna won a gold medal,Marcelo San Agustin who became the first Filipino prodigy. The Philippines has the only bamboo organ in the world.It was built in 1824 by Father Diego Cera and now found in the church of Las Pinas
Lesson 3- Filipino Resistance to Colonial Rule
n 1863 the colonial government introduced a system of free primary-school education. Institutions of higher learning remained limited, however, and only a few admitted non-Spaniards. The new Filipino elite became known as ilustrados (Spanish for “the enlightened ones”) because they could afford higher education. Some ilustrados studied abroad in Spain.
By the second half of the 19th century the ilustrados had begun to agitate for reforms in both the civil and ecclesiastical establishments. In Spain the revolution of 1868 had produced a democratic constitution that provided for equality and civil and political rights. In the Philippines the ilustrados asked that these rights be extended to Filipinos. Filipino priests also agitated for reforms. They wanted the church to follow official Vatican policy, which dictated that religious orders would relinquish control to indigenous diocesan priests in places that had been successfully converted to Christianity. The Spanish friars in the Philippines held considerable power, forming what was called a friarocracy. They conducted many functions of government on the local level, controlled education at all levels, and were the largest landholders. They resented that their influence was being questioned by Filipino priests, and their response was increasingly racist. They successfully resisted the local movement to replace them.